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B. Zhilyaev, V. Petukhov, D. Tcheng, D. Caron, V. Reshetnyk

Main Astronomical Observatory, NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
University of Illinois, Chicago, USA
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv


The 2022 Pentagon Unidentified Aerial Phenomena (UAP) or Unidentified Flying Objects (UFO) Report covers approximately 510 catalogued UAP reports collected by branches of the U.S. military. “The 366 reports were assessed as routine airborne phenomena. The remaining 171 reports demonstrated unusual flight characteristics and require further analysis,” - the report said. Thus, UFOs as pop culture objects have become objects of scientific research. At the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, we decided to conduct scientific experiments to detect UFOs. We used two stations to observe meteors and astronomical methods to observe and process fast processes. High-speed video recording of the daytime sky was conducted to detect UFOs. The characteristics of the UFO were analyzed quantitatively. The observational and data processing technology we developed has enabled our colleagues in the United States to detect and identify UFOs and evaluate their characteristics. An overview of this investigation is presented here. According to our data, there are two types of UFOs, luminous objects, brighter than the background of the sky and dark objects, with contrast from several to about 50 per cent. Distance of dark objects determined from visible-light colorimetry. Distance for bright objects two-side observations used from parallax measurements. Dark UFOs are observed in the troposphere at distances up to 24 km. The size is estimated to be 100 ± 30 meters, a linear speed of 13 km/s or 40 Mach. Two-side observations of bright UFOs give distances up to 1.5 km, a size of about 4 meters, and a speed of about 100 m/s. Two-side observations reveal a space UFO. A parallax of 4.9 degrees, a distance of 1400 km, an altitude of 620 km and a linear speed of 256 km/s.

1) I believe that we are observing objects of unearthly origin.
2) Objects demonstrate technology unknown to our civilization.
3) Objects exhibit a speed of 282 km/sec. At this speed, you can fly to the moon in 20 minutes.
4) UFO accelerations exceed the acceleration due to gravity at Earth's surface by factors of 1,000 or more in some cases.
5) The movement of UFO at a speed of Mach 40 does not cause disturbances in the atmosphere.
6) A feature of this object is regular flashes with a duration of hundredths of a second. In addition, the intensity of their glow drops to almost zero.
7) Its duty cycle ranges from about 1 to 10 per cent. This means that UFO can be invisible ninety-nine per cent of the time.


[1] Zhilyaev B.E., Petukhov V.N., Reshetnyk V.M., 2022, Unidentified aerial phenomena I. Observations of events, DOI: doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2208.11215
[2] Zhilyaev B.E., Petukhov V.N., Reshetnyk V.M., 2022, Unidentified aerial phenomena II. Evaluation of UAP properties, DOI: doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2211.17085
[3] Zhilyaev B.E., Petukhov V.N. 2023, Unidentified aerial phenomena. UAPs over Kyiv, DOI:
[4] Boris Zhilyaev, David Tcheng, Vladimir Petukhov, 2023, Unidentified aerial phenomena. Observations
of variable objects, arxiv.org/abs/2306.13664v1
[5] Boris Zhilyaev, Dan Caron, 2024, Unidentified Aerial Phenomena. Events over Kyiv and New York, DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.30951.01449
[6] David Windt, 2024, Detection of UFOs and Quantitative Analysis of Their Motion Using High-Speed Infrared Video, DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.19165.18401

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